Ontology

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Ontology(ONT) ICO Review

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Ontology is a decentralized social networking platform that is putting users privacy and satisfaction as its first priority. It is an innovative approach towards transparent and independent means of user data ownership, reward on ads and free of speech. It is the first get paid to content creation and sharing ecosystem that leveraged OCR token payments for its reward system.

Essential Information

Ico TimeUnknown – Unknown
Token NameOntology
Token SymbolONT
WhitepaperView Whitepaper
Website LinkHome
TypePayment
PlatformEthereum
CountrySingapore
Hard Cap

More about Ontology(ONT) ICO:

Ontology provides new high-performance public blockchains that include a series of complete distributed ledgers and smart contract systems. Ontology blockchain framework supports public blockchain systems and is able to customize different public blockchains for different applications. Ontology supports collaboration amongst chain networks with its various protocol groups. Ontology will constantly provide common modules on the underlying infrastructure for different kinds of distributed scenarios, such as those for the distributed digital identity framework, distributed data exchange protocol, and so on. Based on specific scenario requirements, Ontology will continue to develop new common modules.

Throughout history people have established trust through technology, rule of law, and communities.

However, trust and collaboration between entities involves multiple sources and isolated systems, which means it can be costly, and therefore hinders the breadth and depth of collaboration potential. Although the technology has advanced a great deal in recent times, too many factors are still hindering collaboration with trust. These include fragmentation of trust systems, the missing role of the individual, inaccurate identity verification, inability to dispute false information, etc. In areas such as social governance, economic cooperation, and financial services, the cost of establishing trust is huge.

The decentralized, tamper-proof blockchain has brought trust through technology to certain industries, however, further integrative mechanisms are needed to join together diverse trust systems and applications into a single new trust ecosystem.

Ontology establishes the connecting infrastructure for a trust ecosystem, with effective coordination of trust and data sources, as well as providing the infrastructure for distributed application development. 

INTRODUCTION


Ontology is an integrated multi-chain and multi-system framework composed of different industries and regions that pass through Ontology’s protocols to allow mapping between different chains and traditional information systems. For this reason, Ontology is also referred to as “Ontology Chain Group” or “Ontology Chain Network”, that is, a connector between blockchains.

At Ontology’s core is a complete distributed ledger system, including the Core Ledger, smart contract system, and security system. The distributed ledger is an important underlying storage infrastructure of Ontology; the decentralized, mutually managed, and tamper-proof features of distributed ledger technology are key to creating trust between entities in the network. The distributed ledger includes a consensus and smart contract system, and provides consensus, storage, and smart contract support for the upper application framework. Ontology and its distributed ledger technology use a decoupled architecture (which is the default for the Ontology Ledger) that can support NEO, Ethereum, and other blockchains as the underlying layer. At the ledger level, we creatively propose a shared data contract model that decouples data storage and business logic, and implements different business logic with the use of smart contracts to improve the scalability and flexibility of the architecture on the whole.
The distributed trust framework is the core logic layer of Ontology. We use ONT ID to connect different ID authentication services and provide a source of trust for people, money, goods, and things. ONT ID is decentralized, self-manageable, privacy-protected, and safe and easy to use. The trust framework establishes a distributed trust model and distributed trust delivery system through verifiable claims[1][2], and uses the CL signature algorithm and zero-knowledge proof protocol to assure privacy protection of verifiable claims.
Ontology uses a series of protocol standards. Proposals include an identity protocol, multi-source authentication protocol, user authorization protocol, and distributed data exchange protocol. A range of protocols that are compatible internationally are implemented, such as DID[3] designed by W3C. The cryptographic signature protocol also supports cryptography such as the Chinese national cryptography standard, RSA, and ECDSA. The distributed data exchange system is compatible with the widely used authorization protocols, e.g. Oauth[4] and UMA[5], to enable the architecture to meet the goal of being open and standardized, and to support future extensive ecological cooperation and expansion.
For application service provision, Ontology provides the infrastructure for application developers to directly provide distributed services on top of Ontology without having knowledge of how to develop distributed systems. In short, Ontology provides a series of application frameworks, including APIs, SDKs, and various application modules that allow application service providers with a wide range of technological backgrounds to develop their own dApps and make dApps as a Service (DAAS). This makes blockchain easy to use for all.
Ontology also includes a variety of advanced modules: cryptography and data protection modules, data exchange markets, global transaction databases, hybrid oracle, unlimited consensus engines, and more. In the future, Ontology will develop a community of developers and business partners, continuously enriching applications and modules to promote the technological development of Ontology’s ecosystem.


CHAIN GROUP STRUCTURE


The aim of Ontology is to build a bridge between the real world and distributed data systems. Due to the diversity, complexity, and specialization of businesses in the real world, considerations in performance, scalability, and applicability must be taken into consideration, of which it is hard to use one public chain/ affiliated chain network to support all scenarios. In practice, different business logics require different chains to meet the needs of different scenarios with different access methods and governance models. Also, many business scenarios do not exist independently, and require diversified interaction with other scenarios. Therefore, different protocols need to be provided between these different chains to support inter-service process cooperation.

Based on these requirements and models, Ontology proposes a hyper-converged chain group, which takes the form of a matrix grid. In a horizontal area there may be public chains that provide basic common services, such as entity mapping, protocol support for data exchange, and smart contract services. On one or more public blockchains, each industry, geographical area, and business scenario can have its own unique service chain that can meet its requirements for access, compliance, governance, consensus, etc. Each can also use public chains to provide basic services, such as entity authentication, data exchange protocols, etc., as well as collaborate with other businesses.

In addition to the use of the public chain, there will also be collaborations with chains related to the industry of the specific business. Under different collaborations, the service chains involved may also vary, so there may be some small dedicated public/affiliate service chains that cooperate with one or several service chains or service points for specific business requirements. Therefore, in the vertical area, many business collaboration chains will emerge that will include special cross-chain collaborative support for smart contract services, business logic services, etc.
The matrix grid architecture can form a truly autonomous next-generation, versatile network. Different business scenarios can find different ways to apply the right service model through a wide range of collaborative methods.
The various protocols in Ontology are not static and users can choose different protocols according to different business scenarios, industry features, regulatory requirements, and governance requirements. Therefore, in Ontology, protocols will continue to be part of the development process, though the main aim is to maximize usability with different protocols and standards within each scenario to make Ontology have better compatibility and scalability with the world.
Ontology uses its distributed ledger framework to satisfy different scenarios with the implementation of one or more configurable blockchains. The distributed ledger framework can also customize the service chain for specific business scenarios (e.g. different mechanisms for access, governance, consensus, storage, etc.). In addition, Ontology can collaborate with other existing blockchain systems and traditional IT systems through the use of protocols.

ONTOLOGY IDENTIFICATION PROTOCOL
“Entity” refers to individuals, legal entities (organizations, enterprises, institutions, etc.), objects (mobile phones, automobiles, IoT devices, etc.) in the real world, and “identity” refers to the entity’s identity within the network. Ontology uses Ontology Identifier (ONT ID) to identify and manage the entities’ identities in the network. In Ontology one entity can correspond to multiple individual identities.
ONT ID is a decentralized identity protocol that links and maps different authentication services of a single entity. It is decentralized, self-manageable, privacy protected, and safe and easy to use. Each ONT ID corresponds to an ONT ID Description Object, which is used to record the attribute information, such as the public key, of the ONT ID. Description objects serve as public information for storage in the distribution layer at the core of Ontology. For privacy reasons, the description object by default does not include information about the identity of any entity.

Anonymous Claim

In normal circumstances the claim owner exposes the full content of the claim to the verifier when it makes a claim. However, in some scenarios the claim owner may not want to expose certain content of the claim to the verifier. In light of this, Ontologys offers anonymous verifiable claim technology to protect the privacy of its users.

Anonymous Claim technology solves the problem of hiding the holder’s information during the process of issuing and presenting a claim. In the anonymous claim protocol an entity receives two verifications of their claim from two different verifiers. Even if the two verifiers wanted to conspire together to leak the information they hold, they would not be able to verify whether the information they received is from the same entity. When making an anonymous claim the issuer does not need to provide the original claim to the verifier, they only need to provide a zero-knowledge proof. The verifier can verify the authenticity of the claim by running a validation algorithm with the issuer’s public key, certificate, and an assertion of the attribute values contained in the certificate, e.g. “age > 18” AND “resident of Shanghai”.
An anonymous claim is usually an XML or JSON file that contains both public and cryptographic information. The public information includes all the attributes of the anonymous claim, consisting of three parts: the name of the attribute, the type of the attribute, and the value of the attribute. Attributes support a variety of data types, such as strings, integers, dates, and enumeration types. The cryptographic information mainly includes the owner’s own master key and the issuer’s public information digital signature.
During the presentation of the anonymous verifiable claim the owner proves to the third party verifier that he owns an anonymous claim from an issuer. They can selectively expose some attribute values and hide other attribute values. In addition, they can prove that some hidden attributes satisfy certain logical assertions.
Anonymous claims use the CL signature scheme[10] and Σ-protocol[11] to achieve the features mentioned above.

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